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Imam Ibn ul Hajj Al-Maliki As-Sufi al-Ashari

Posted by muhammedm on June 24, 2012

As-Salamu ‘Alaykum, أبدأُ بالحمدِ مُصَلِّياً على مُحمَّدٍ خَيِر نبيْ أُرســـــِلا

This is a continuation proving the ascription of scholars to a particular school of theology. The following are words of Imam Ibn ul Hajj, the student of the famous Ashari Sufi who needs no introduction in the scholarly scholar Ibn Abi Jamrah, Allah ta’ala have mercy on him. The following words in regards to the Ayat of Sifat indicate his preferred school of Aqidah, namely the Ashari School.

The Imam, on pg. 32 of the 2nd volume of al-Madkhal, under the chapter heading of “Words regarding verses and narrations those that have difficult apparent (Thahir – wording)” states: “He shouldn’t have with him books that are read and it contains difficult narrations for the listener in regards to the apparent wording, and at the same time there is no one to clarify the rulings and meaning, and clear the difficult passages, and even if there is somone who can clarrify the difficult wording then it a must that his voice encompass everyone that is in the gathering just like the voice of the recitor of Quran which encompasses it’s listeners, because if he doesn’t raise it then most likely there will be some who will leave (the gathering) and will carry with them doubts in regards to creed. Imam Malik was asked regarding the narration of the funeral of Sayyidina Sa’ad bin Mu’adh in regards to the throne shaking, and in regards to the narration “Allah ta’ala created Adam in his Surah” and regarding “the Saaq”, so he said (Imam Malik) “They should not be narrated nor should that which an individual wants to be narrated while knowing it is (a cause for) confusion. Ibn al-Qasim said, “it is not proper for the one who fears Allah ta’ala to narrate narrations similar to this, it was said to him, what about the hadith of “Indeed Allah ta’ala laughs” then he didn’t consider it from it and allowed it (the narration thereof).” After Ibn Rush narrates the complete narrations he says, “Imam Malik prohibited from narrating these two narrations and the narration of Allah ta’ala creating Adam in His Surah and those similar to it because their apparent wording necessitates resemblence (tashbih). If a narration is authentic regarding it, then it is (permitted) to interpret upon that which would negate resemblence to Allah ta’ala with any of His creation, as is done with that which has come in the Quran, the apparent of which necessitates resemblences and they are plenty, such as “al-Ityan (the Coming), al-Maji’ (Coming).” (And that) leaves two possibilities (in terms of solutions), one of which is the meaning of His words, “… Allah ta’ala will come” meaning (the coming) of His punishment and revenge if He is rejected”..”The second possibility the meaning would be appearance (Ath-Thuhur) for there is no difference between the Dunya (this world) and the Afterlife in relation to Him, Glory be to Him, for the veil is to us (from Him), for when He unveils the curtain (Hijab) from us, He will appear to us without limit (Hadd) and modality (Takyif) of form and howness, Glory be to Him… Imam Ibn ul-Hajj ends the discussion with saying “and if that is like that (the different possibilites of interpretations), then the matter is divided into three types, (the first one) and it is the best rather it is that which should not be turned away from, it is returning to the words of Imam Malik: not to narrate these narrations from fear upon the weak for some fitnah entering their beliefs, then how can that be done to the Laymen and the women, for the predominant nature is that they enter (the masjid) while believing and leave while being Maftun (subject to confusion)”

Translated with ommited portions.

The above clearly indicates the position of Imam Ibnul Hajj in regards the verses and narrations on the Sifat of Allah ta’ala. His agreement and position is taken from the early Maliki scholars including Imam Ibn al-Qasim and Imam Malik himself. It is only proper that Imam Malik’s words be interpreted and expanded from those who are experts in his thought, and Imam Ibn Rush and Imam Ibnul Hajj are two of those personalities. The above words of Imam Ibnul Hajj leaves no doubt as to his ascription to the Ashari school as the above is in line with the predominant Ashari position.

The link to the work:

Ma’ Salam

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The Mufassir JalaludDin al-Mahalli an Ashari

Posted by muhammedm on March 27, 2012

As-Salamu ‘Alaykum

One of the many Tafasir that has gained prominence amongst ulema is Tafsir al-Jalalyn. This work was authored by Imam Mahalli then completed by Imam Suyuti. Besides Imam Mahalli’s work on Tafsir, his other works on Usul al-Fiqh have gained prominance as well. His commentary on Waraqat is taught by many scholars including the Hanbali scholars Shaykh Namla whose lectures on the work are online. Another work of his is his commentary on the wonderful work on Usul al-Fiqh by Imam Subki entitled Jam’ ul Jawami’, a work that has received careful attention by scholars of all schools as their commentaries show. Imam al-Mahalli has authored a commentary on this wonderful work entitled “al-Badr ut-Tali’ fi Hal Jam’ ul Jawami'”, which can be read online. In this work, Imam Subki towards the end of his work writes about Usul ud Din or Principles of religion (Articles of Faith). Towards the end of the section on Aqidah, Imam Subki writes, “(we believe) Abu al-Hasan al-Ashari to be the Imam of Sunnah given precedence” Imam Mahalli writes the following, giving tacit approval of Imam Subki’s words by writing the following (in brackets are Imam Subki’s words):
“(And) we believe (Abu al-Hasan) ‘Ali bin Isma’il (al-Ashari) and he’s from the progeny of Abu Musa al-Ashari the Companion of the Prophet. (Leader in/of the Sunnah) meaning the theological path trodden (given precedence) in it above others such as Abi Mansur al-Maturidi. One should not give ear to those who speak in regards to him (negatively) for he is free from it.”

To Allah ta’ala belongs all praise.

More to follow in regards to other scholars who were affiliated with the Ashari school.

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‘Allama Shamsul Haq’s commentary on hadith of Mujaddid

Posted by muhammedm on November 11, 2010

Regarding the hadith mentioned in Sunan Abi Dawud, “on the authority of the Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him, he said, “Allah ta’ala will raise for this Ummah at the head of every century who will revive for it it’s religion” ‘Allama Shamsul Haq al-Adhim Abadi says in his commentary on Sunan Abi Dawud, “(it’s religion) meaning explicate the Sunnah from the Bida’, spread knowledge, assist scholars, break the people of innovation and rebuke them. They (the scholars) say that the Mujaddid will only be one who is a scholar of the outward and the inward knowledge, as Munawi says in Fathul Qadir Sharh Jami’ as-Saghir. ‘Allama Shamsul Haq continues, “indeed you know from what has preceded that what is intended of revival is the revival of what has been left of the actions that are in accordance with the Book and the Sunnah, the matters that result from them, and destroying what has appeared of the innovation.” The author if Majalis al-Abrar said, “the Mujaddid is known except through preponderant opinion of those who are contemporaries of the Mujaddid through his contextual conditions and his benefiting others with his knowledge. Then the Mujaddid has to be one who has knowledge of the outward and the inward sciences, eliminating innovations, his knowledge is widespread in his times…”

After quoting Imam Suyuti’s poem on the possible Mujaddids, ‘Allama writes, “from those who are also considered amongst the Mujaddidin are, in the 1st century Ibn Shihab Zuhri, Qasim bin Muhammed, Salim bin Abdillah, Hasan al-Basri, Muhammed bin Sirin, Muhammed al-Baqir, in the 2nd century the Imam of Jarh wa Ta’dil Yahya bin Ma’in, in the 3rd century Imam Nasa’I, the 4th century al-Hakim[i] and Abdul Ghani bin Sa’id al-Misri, in the 9th century Imam Suyuti as he claimed, in the 10th century Shamus Din bin Shihab ud Din ar-Ramli[ii]. Muhibbi wrote in Khulasatul at-Athar fi ‘Ayan al-Qarn al-Hadi al-‘Ashar in his biographical note, “a group of the scholars have considered him (Ar-Ramli) to be the Mujaddid of the 10th century.”

From the Mujaddids of the 11th century is Ibrahim bin Hasan al-Kurdi al-Kawrani[iii] the last of the Muhaqqiqin the pillar of the Musnidin (Hadith Scholars) resident of Madina. In the 12th century Shaykh Salih bin Muhammed bin Nuh al-Fulani resident of Medina, and Sayyid Murtada al-Husayni az-Zabidi[iv]. In the 13th century, Our Shaykh (after three lines of titles of praise) Sayyid Nadhir Husayn, Qadi Husayn bin Muhammed al-Ansari al-Khazraji as-Sa’di al-Yamani[v] and ‘Allamah Siddiq al-Hasan Khan Al-Bhopali al-Qunuji[vi], Allah ta’ala cover him with His forgiveness and enter him into Jannah. This is what I believe in regards to these three scholars that they are from the Mujaddidin of this 13th century.”

Source: ‘Awn ul Ma’bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud li Shamsil Haq

[i] The Author of al-Mustadrik and al-Ulum al-Hadith. He kept the company of Abu Uthman al-Maghribi. Ibn ‘Asakir includes him amongst the Asha’irah.

[ii] Faqih of Misr, he writes “to delve into ‘Ilm al-Kalam such that it is possible to provide evidence and remove doubts is Fard Kifayah upon all of those who are Mukallifin (responsible). Everyone of them is addressed in learning ‘Ilm al-Kalam, however if some of them learn it, then the responsibility is removed from the rest, but if everyone of them refuses to learn it, each individual who has no excuse and knows it’s his responsibility and can learn it sins.” Ghayatul Bayan Sharh Zubad ibn Raslan

[iii] Shah Waliullah writes, “Shaykh Ibrahim al-Kurdi was from the signs of Allah ta’ala in al-Aslein (Aqidah and Usul al-Fiqh), Jurisprudence, Hadith, and Tasawwuf. He has treatise in every science which indicates his powerful explication. He has authored works which no one similar to, especially in hadith, such as ‘Al-Amam’ and al-Musalsalat, and a treatise regarding the authentication of Ahadith mentioned by Sufis. In his time, people from all over the world would turn towards him in Tasawwuf, al-Aslein, Shafi’ fiqh and Hadith. Questions would be posed to him from the east and west which he would answer and were made into many treatises.” Page 105 Ithaf an-Nabih fima Yahtaj ilayhi al-Muhadith wal Faqih

[iv] The Hanafi, Sufi Mutakallim, author of Sharh ul Ihya.  The student of Shah Wailullah and ‘Allama as-Saffarini al-Khalwati al-Hanbali.

[v] He says in his Ijazah, “I used to frequent him (Shaykh Sulayman al-Ahdal), and I read parts of the Six books and others, Hizb of Imam Nawawi and it’s commentary by ‘Allama al-Jurhazi, Hizb of Ibn ‘Arabi and others. He gave me authorization in specific works and in general”. He was a student of ‘Allama Shawkani.

[vi] An admirer of Ibn Arabi and Qasidah Burdah. Refer to and his work Abjadul Ulum..

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Did the Salaf say “‏كرم الله وجهه” when Sayyidina ‘Ali was mentioned?

Posted by muhammedm on March 29, 2010

أبدأُ بالحمدِ مُصَلِّياً على مُحمَّدٍ خَيِر نبيْ أُرســـــِلا

While researching about a topic that some of our brothers deem bida’, I came across several fatawa which claimed there was no basis for the above expression nor did the Salaf use it; at first I came upon the expression in Sharh us Shamail of Mulla ‘Ali, and I wondered if it was Mulla ‘Ali who wrote it or was it from Imam Tirmidhi himself as the expression was inside parenthesis giving the impression that it was the original text of Shamail by Imam Tirmidhi. And so my findings led me to the following, suffice it to say the Salaf would say the above expression for Sayyidina ‘Ali (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him) and so the argument that the Salaf didn’t use it is incorrect, to say the least. For surprises me is not only the flinging of the word bida’, but the expression is used in the hadith works which are widely distributed and studied, so is there any excuse for claiming it’s bida’?

1- Musnad of Imam Ahmed, hadith number 15941, regarding the hadith of Sayyidina ‘Ali receiving the flag from Sayyiduna Muhammed (peace be upon him), Imam Ahmed records in his work: ‏فقال علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه

2- Sunan Nasai, hadith number 4348, “on the authority of Abi ‘Ubayd Mawla Ibn ‘Awf he said, “I saw ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Allah ta’ala ennoble his face, on the day of ‘Id”. From the reading of this narration, it seems the Tabi’, Mawla ibn ‘Awf, is saying ‘May Allah ta’ala ennoble his face’.

3- Sunan Nasai, hadith number 5518, “Malik bin ‘Umayr narrated to me, he said, Sa’sa’ said to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, Allah ta’ala ennoble his face,”.

4- Sunan Nasai’, hadith number 825, “(‘Ubaydillah bin ‘Abdillah said) ‘Ibn ‘Abbas said, “do you know the name of the man who was with al-‘Abbas?” I said, “No”, he said (‘Ibn Abbas) ‘Ali, Allah ta’ala ennoble his face.”

5- Sunan Nasai’, hadith number 5533, “on the authority of al-Harith bin Suwayd, on the authority of ‘Ali, Allah ta’ala ennoble his face, on the Authority of an-Nabi (peace be upon him)…”

6- Musnad Imam Ahmed, hadith number 1775, “Isma’il narrated to us, Ayyub narrated to us, on the authority of ‘Ikramah, that ‘Ali set fire a group of people…that (Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas’s criticism) reached ‘Ali, Allah ta’ala ennoble his face…”

Link for Musnad Ahmed:

Link of Sunan an-Nasai’:

As for the argument that Shia’hs started this expression, they who claim this have to prove it, since the above clearly shows that the Tabi’in would say it, and number 4 gives the impression that a Sahabi, Sayyidina ‘Ibn ‘Abbas, said it. As for the reason why the Ahlus Sunnah said the above phrase, the reason is because the Khawarij would say ‘May his face be blackened’, and in response to this Ahlus Sunnah said ‘May Allah ta’ala ennoble his face’.

Ma’ Salama

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Tawassul according to Hanbalis

Posted by muhammedm on January 24, 2010

أبدأُ بالحمدِ مُصَلِّياً على مُحمَّدٍ خَيِر نبيْ أُرســـــِلا

Ibn Taymiyya says after quoting (from Ibn Abi Dunya’s work ‘Mujabi ad-Dua’) an incident from the time of the salaf in which the individual did tawassul, he (Ibn Taymiyya) says: “I say this dua’ and similar (dua’) has been narrated that the Salaf used to ask (in supplication) with, and it’s been reported in the Mansak that Imam Ahmed (encouraged) tawassul through the Prophet in his dua’”. Page 147 Qa’ida al-Jalila

1- Abu ‘Abdillah al-Ardibly said, I heard Aba Bakr bin Abi al-Khasib say, “Safwan bin Salim was mentioned in the presence of Imam Ahmed, to which Imam Ahmed said, “water is sought through this man’s sayings, and rain descends through him being mentioned” (Tahdhib al-Kamal of Hafidh Mizzi)
2- Imam Ahmed’s son wrote in al-Masail, “I heard my father say, “I performed five Hajj, two of them mounted and three on foot, or two on foot and three mounted, on one of the Hajj I forgot the route while I was walking, so I said, “O servants of Allah ta’ala guide us to the path (the road), I kept on saying it until we came upon the path”, or something similar to the saying. Imam al-Bayhaqi narrated it as well with an authentic chain, Ibn Muflih al-Hanbali mentioned it in al-Adab as-Shari’ayah, Shaykh Albani said in his work ‘as-silsilah ad-Da’if wal Mawdu’ah, “Imam Ahmed considered the hadith of Ibn Abbas to be strong, which al-Hafidh considered good, because he (Imam Ahmed) practiced it, and his son, Abdullah, said regarding the narration as ‘al-Hadith’.
3- Imam as-Samuri said in al-Mustaw’ib, “there’s nothing wrong with tawassul to Allah ta’ala, thru Shuyukh, Zuhhad, people of knowledge and virtue from the Muslims to Allah ta’ala in seeking rain.
4- Imam Taqi ud Din al-Adami in his al-Munawwar said, “Tawassul through the pious is allowed”.
5- Imam Ibn al-Muflih writes in al-Furu’, “Tawassul through a righteous person is allowed, and it’s said it’s recommended.”
6- Imam al-Mardawi writes in al-Insaf, “Tawassul through a righteous person is allowed, this is the correct opinion in the madhab. It’s said that it’s recommended. Imam Ahmed said in his work entitled ‘al-Mansak’, which he wrote for al-Marruthi, “Tawassul is done thru the Prophet, peace be upon him, in dua’, and he affirmed it in al-Mustaw’ib and other works.”
7- Imam al-Hajjawi said in al-Iqna’ on the commentary of Imam al-Buhuti, “there’s nothing wrong with doing tawasswul through the righteous”.
8- Imam Ibn Najjar in his work entitled, ‘Muntaha al-Iradat, on his commentary of Imam Buhuti, “Tawassul through the righteous is allowed”.
9- Imam Mari’ al-Karmi writes in Ghayatul Muntaha, “Likewise tawassul through the righteous is allowed”.
10- Ibn ‘Imad al-Hanbali writes in Shadharatu ad-Dhahab in the biographical note on as-Sayyid Ahmed al-Bukhari, “His grave is visited and sought blessing through it”.
11- In the book ‘Kashshaf al-Qina of al-Buhuti, “as-Samuri and the author of at-Talkhis said, “there’s nothing wrong with tawassul thru Shuyukh, and the God fearing scholars for rain. He said in al-Madhab, “It’s allowed to seek intercession with Allah ta’ala through a righteous person. It was said to Marwidhi, “Tawassul is done through the Prophet in Dua’, and he affirmed it in al-Mustaw’ib and other works. Then he said, “Ibrahim al-Harbi said, “Dua’ at the grave of Ma’ruf al-Karkhi is well known and is accepted.”
12- Imam Ibn al-Jawzi said in al-Manaqib Imam Ahmed, “on the authority of Abdullah bin Musa, that he said, “My father and I went out on a dark night we visited Ahmed, darkness was intensified, so my father said, “O my son, let’s do tawassul to Allah ta’ala through this righteous slave until the path can be seen for I have not been doing tawassul through him except that my needs are met. Then my father made dua’ and I said Amin to his dua’, then the sky lighted as if it was a full moon night until we reached the place.”
13- Ibn al-Jawzi in Manaqib Imam Ahmed narrates the story of tawassul and tabbaruk of Imam Shafi’I through the shirt of Imam Ahmed.
14- Ibn Abi Ya’ala al-Hanbali writes in at-Tabaqat, “a grave was dig at the side of the grave of Imam Ahmed, and he (another individual) was buried in it, and the people took much soil from his grave as way of blessing, and people frequented his grave, night and day for a long time, and would finish the Quran, and would increase their dua’, and it has reached me that there has been thousands of Khatamat (recitiation of whole Quran) at his grave for periods of months”.
15- Ibn Qudama al-Hanbali in his Mughni writes, “It’s recommended to seek rain through a person whose righteousness is well known.”

Others from the Hanabilah who had no problem with Tawassul: ‘Allama Ibn ‘Aqil, Shaykh ‘AbdulQadir al-Jilani, Qadi ash-Shawkani (not a Hanbali but admired by salafis), Shaykh Umar at-Taghlabi, ‘Allama as-Saffarini in his Thabat, and others.

Now for those who want to say it’s bida’ and shirk, let them point their fingers at the likes of Imam Ahmed and other Hanabilah. And keep in mind there isn’t a single criticism of Hanbalis on Tawassul until Ibn Taymiyya came on the scene and his position is rejected by the later Hanbali scholars such as as-Saffarini, Ibn Muflih, Buhuti and others, and all of these later scholars were great admirers of Ibn Taymiyya especially as-Saffarini, whose work is loaded with Ibn Taymiyya work.

For a summary of salafi scholars’ stance on tawassul through the Prophet, Shaykh Albani considered it a bida’ that was invented after the first three generation. Shaykh Bin Baz, “it’s forbidden, bida’, because it’s a means for excessiveness and shirk”. << A sad attempt at trying to interpret Imam Ahmed's position to their own liking.

Ma’ Salama

Posted in Fiqh, Miscellaneous | 11 Comments »

Sufi Khirqa (cloak): Hafidh Ibn Taymiyya, Hafidh as-Sakhawi, Hanbali Sufis

Posted by muhammedm on January 16, 2010

أبدأُ بالحمدِ مُصَلِّياً على مُحمَّدٍ خَيِر نبيْ أُرســـــِلا

This post is concerning a particular aspect of the issue on Khirqa (the cloak of the Sufis). Salafis are known to speak out against almost everything that is done by Sufis. I thought I would write a little bit about the Khirqa from the writings of ‘Allama Ibn Taymiyya, and while I was reading Maqasid al-Hasanah, I came upon the narration of Sayyidina ‘Ali dawning the cloak on Sayyidina Hasan al-Basri, and so I thought that would be good addition to the post. And then I thought of how much todays salafis have a great dislike for the sufis, but great respect for the Hanbalis, and rightfully so, since the Hanabilah have produced great Ulema, that being said, I took notice of the fact that many Hanabilah took the sufi path, and wore the cloak, as this post will make clear. It should be kept in mind that these Hanabilah listed below aren’t just regular Hanbali Ulema, but they are referred to as Shaykh ul Hanabilah, or Shaykhul Islam. And salafis have taken recourse to their works, and called themselves Hanbalis, which I believe is a great lie when it comes to the issue of tasawwuf, and so here it is:

‘Allama Ibn Taymiyya on the Khirqa:
“As for the wearing of Khirqa which some of the Mashayikh garb the spiritual students (Muridin), it doesn’t have a basis with relied upon evidence from the Kitab and Sunnah. The olden Mashayikh and most of the later ones didn’t clothe the spiritual students; however a group from the later ones considered it and liked it.
Some of them sought evidence from the fact that the Prophet, peace be upon him, gave Umm Khalid bin Sa’id bin al-‘As a clothing, and said to her, Sana?”, and al-Sana in the language of al-Habasha is goodness/excellence. She was born in the land of Habasha, that’s why he addressed her in that language. They also seek evidence with the hadith of the Burda which was knitted by a woman for the Prophet, peace be upon him. One of the Sahaba asked him for it, and he gave it to him, and (the Sahabi) said, “I wanted it to be my kafan”.
In these two ahadith there’s no evidence for the manner in which they use it, for the giving of a man to someone else which he will wear is like giving him that which will benefit him, and the taking of the clothing from the Prophet, peace be upon him, concerned (to obtain) blessing (barakah) like the taking of his hair for blessing. This is not like wearing a piece of clothing or a hat in a manner of following and imitating, however it resembles from another angle renouncing the king which they renounce from the one who befriends them, as if it’s a hallmark and a sign for Wilayah and Karamat.
This is why they deem it as noble. The purpose of this and other things like it is to be put under the category of permissible acts (Mubahat), and if it’s combined with a righteous intention, it would be excellent/good (hasan) from this angle, as for deeming it a Sunnah and a path to Allah ta’ala then the matter is not like it.
As for ascription of the group (Sufis) to a particular Shaykh, then there’s no doubt that people are in need of those who teach them al-Iman and Quran, just as how the Sahaba learned from the Prophet, peace be upon him. And the Tabi’in learnt from them, and through this is the obtainment of following the foremost in goodness. Just as a man learns Quran from someone, and things like it (the Shariah), it is likewise that he learn the Inner (Batin) and the outward (Thahir) Din.
Source: Majmu’ al-Fatawa

‘Allama as-Sakhawi in Maqasid al-Hasanah:
In the hadith of Hasan al-Basri receiving the khirqa from Sayyidina ‘Ali, which is fabricated as many of Huffadh have said, including Ibn as-Salah, Ibn Dihya, Hafidh ibn Hajar, ‘Allama Sakhawi writes, “(the position) was held by a group of scholars, even those who wore it and gowned others, such as Ad-Dimyati, Ad-Dhahabi, al-Hakkari, Abi Hayyan, al-’Alai, Mughlataya, al-Iraqi, Ibn al-Mulaqqin, al-Abnasi, al-Burhan al-Halabi, Ibn Nasir ud Din…I have discussed this in a separate treatise as well as in other of my works, while taking this position (of Hasan not wearing the claok from Sayyidina ‘Ali), I’ve gowned the khirqa to a group of Sufis, by way of imitation of their concern regarding the khirqa, even in front of the honored ka’aba, by way of seeking blessing with the mentioning of the righteous and following the ones who have established (this) from the relied upon Huffadh.
Hafidh Sakhawi wore the khirqa from: al-Mahyuwi, Abi Madyan al-Ashmumi, Abi al-Fath al-Fawi, Umar an-Nabtiti and others.

From Dhayl Tabaqat al-Hanabilah by Ibn Rajab
1. Muhammed bin Ahmed bin Umar bin al-Husayn bin Khalaf al-Baghdadi al-Qati’I al-Azji al-Hanbali born in the year 546 Hijri, he received the khirqa from Abi an-Najib as-Suhrawardi, and gave him Ijaza.
2. Muhammed bin Ahmed bin ‘Abdullah bin ‘Isa bin Abi ar-Rijal, as-Shaykh, al-Faqih al-Muhaddith, az-Zahid, born 572 Hijri, he wore the khirqa of tassawuf from Shaykh Abdillah al-Batayihi, the companion of Shaykh Abdul Qadir,.
3. Muhammed bin ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar al-Muhaddith as-Sufi al-Katib, born in the year 623 Hijri, wore the Khirqa of Tassawuf from as-Suhrawardi.

From the Thabat of ‘Allama as-Saffarini al-Khalwati
1- ‘Allama As-Shaykh Abu at-Taqi ‘Abdul Qadir bin Shaykh ‘Umar bin Shaykh Abi Taghlab al-Hanbali as-Sufi al-Qadiri Mufti As-Sadat al-Hanabilah fi Dimishq.
2- Mustafa bin as-Sayyid Kamalluddin al-Bakri al-Khalwati (a Sufi Tariqa), after praising his shaykh with wonderful words he (as-Saffarini) says, “He gave me permision (to narrate, teach, etc) all of them (the works he lists which includes al-Mawlid), and (he gave me permision) in the al-Khalwatiyya Tariqa, and that I give authority and permision whomever I deem approriate for it (in the Tariqa).” (sadly the salafi editor has a problem with the Sufi as-Saffarini, as well as with Shaykh ‘Abdul Ghani an-Nabulusi, who was one of ‘Allama as-Saffarini’s biggest Shayukh as is apparent).
3- He says about himself, “I’m Ahmed bin Salim as-Saffarini, of HanbalI Madhab, Athari in regards to ‘Aqidah, and Qadiri in regards to method/way (of Tassawuf). Page 268

From Mashikha of Abu al-Mawahib ‘Abdul Baqi al-HanbalI (practically all of the Shuyukh were Sufis, though I restricted myself to HanbalI Sufis from his work.)
1- ‘Abdul Baqi Taqi ud Din bin ‘Abdul Baqi al-HanbalI, known as ibn Badr, the father of the author of the work Mashikha, writes quoting his father, “I took the Sufi Tariqa from the son of my uncle, Shaykh Nurud Din the Khalifa of Muhammed al-’Alami, he encouraged me to seek ‘ilm. Shaykh Muhammed al-’Alami gave me Ijazah (permision) in al-Quds to initiate in awrad, dhikr, etc.”
2- Regarding Shaykh Ayuub bin Ahmed al-Khalwati he (the author) says, “and from them our shaykh and teacher in the Khalwatiya Tariqah, and in Shariah Shaykh Ayyub…”
3- Shaykh ‘Isa bin Muhammed al-Maghribi ath’alabi, “Imam of the two Harams, the scholar of the two west and east” He took from Shaykh Sa’id bin Ibrahim al-Jazairi, “dhikr and wore the Khirqa” from him. Even though the shaykh is Maliki, I’ve brought him to show how the Imams of the two Haram were sufis.
4- Muhammed bin Ahmed al-Khalwati al-Hanbali

For more on Sufi Hanbalis who took the Tariqa you can refer to As-Suhb al-Wabilah ‘ala Daraih al-Hanabilah by Ibn Humayd an-Najdi al-Hanbali, a Hanbali biographical work, the author was born after Shaykh AbdulWahhab and before the recent Salafi movement. As an added bonus, the readers can see the difference between salafis and hanbalis, as the muhaqqiq is vocal on his stance. So for those who want to label anyone and everyone who dawns the sufi cloak and are judgmental on anyone who takes the sufi path, are they ready to label these Hanabilah, whom I’ve restricted to the sufi path for were I to list those who were known as ‘sufis’ the list would end in pages, as deviant or misguided they so easily label others as such?

Ma’ Salama

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The dead receive the reward for recitation

Posted by muhammedm on May 11, 2009


Giving the reward to the dead

Fatawa li Hafidh ibn Hajar fil ‘Aqidah:
“Ahl us Sunnah differed regarding the bodily worships, a group from the Salaf, and it’s the opinion of some of the Ahnaf and is reported of Imam Ahmed, that it’s authentic (the reaching) for the dead, and he or she benefits, and others differed in that….
Ibn Hamdan al-Hanbali clarified in his book (ar-Ri’aya) that all acts reach the dead, whether it’s bodily or monetary, such as Charity, freeing of slaves, prayer, Hajj and recitation. Then he said, “it’s said, “if he (the one doing the act) intends while doing the act or before it, the (reward) reaches the dead, and if not, it doesn’t reach the dead….
Al-Khallal said, Abu Bakr al-Marwizi reported to us, I heard Ahmed bin Muhammed bin Hanbal say, “when you enter the cemetery, recite the opening of the book, Mu’awwidhatayn, Surah Ahad, and make it (the intention) for the people in the graves, for indeed it reaches them.” It’s reported from az-Za’farani, he said, “I asked as-Shafi’I about reciting at the grave, he said, “There’s no problem with it”. This text is rare from as-Shafi’I, az-Za’farani is from the early reporters, and he’s trustworthy. And if nothing new is reported that differs with the old text, then it’s practiced upon. But it (the report) doesn’t necessitate that Imam Shafi’I held the opinion of the recitation reaching the dead…” (Imam Shafi’I had two schools, the earlier one and the latter one).

Hafidh in al-Fatawa:
“Indeed, there have come few narrations from the Salaf regarding reciting at the grave, then the people continued this action from the time of the Imams of cities until our times. From that which has appeared regarding this is what al-Khallal narrated in his book, Al-Jami’, he said, “Al-‘Abbas bin Ahmed ad-Dawri said, I asked Ahmed bin Hanbal, “did you memorize (ahadith) anything regarding reciting at the grave?” He said, “No”, He (Al-‘Abbas) said, “and I asked Yahya Bin Ma’in, he narrated to me on the authority of Mubashshir bin Isma’il al-Halabi, he said, AbdurRahman bin al-‘ala’ bin Al-Hallah, on the authority of his father, he said, my father (Sahabi) said, “when I die, put me in the grave and say “in the name of Allah ta’ala, and upon the Sunnah of the Prophet of Allah ta’ala, and read near my head the beginning of al-Baqarah, and it’s end, for indeed I heard Sayyidina Ibn Umar will this (act). Then Al-Khallal narrated from another path, that Ahmed was at a Janaza, when the deceased was buried, a blind man came… (The hadith is mentioned above). Al-Khallal also said, “Abu Bakr al-Marwizi narrated to us that “I heard Ahmed bin Muhammed bin Hanbal say, “when you enter the cemetery, recite the Fatiha…”

Mulla ‘Ali Qari in Sharh Fiqh al-Akbar:
“It’s disagreed regarding (the reaching of the reward) bodily worship, such as fasting, recitation of the Quran, and remembrance of Allah ta’ala. The opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ahmed and the majority of the Salaf (Allah ta’ala have mercy on them) is that it reaches the dead, and the well-known opinion of the Madhab of Imam Ash-Shafi’I and Imam Malik is that of not reaching the dead…
The recitation of the Quran at the grave is disliked according to Imam Abi Hanifa, Imam Malik, and Imam Ahmed, because it’s an innovation, it’s not mentioned in the Sunnah. Muhammed bin al-Hasan and Ahmed, in one narration, said it’s not disliked because of what is narrated on the authority of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him) that he advised that the beginning and end of Surah Baqara should be recited at the grave at the time of burial. And Allah ta’ala knows best.”

‘Allama Suyuti said in Sharh us Sudur:
“It’s differed upon regarding the reward of the recitation for the dead. The majority of the Salaf and the three Imams agreed on the reward reaching the dead. Our Imam, As-Shafi’I, differed in this, deriving the ruling through the ayah “there is nothing for man except that which he strived for”, the first ones (the Imams who said it reaches) answered regarding this ayah through many ways….
(He also mentions the report of az-Za’farani and Imam as-Shafi’i).

Imam an-Nawawi in al-Adhkar (under the chapter of what to say after burying):
“Imam As-Shafi’I and the companions (of the Madhab) said, “It’s recommended to recite something of the Quran, and they said if they recite the whole Quran then it’s great. We narrate in Sunan al-Bayhaqi with a fair (hasan) chain that Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar recommended that the beginning and the end of the Surah baqarah be recited at the grave.”

In the chapter of what benefits the dead from the saying of others:

“The scholars disagreed about the reward of recitation reaching the dead, the well-known opinion of the Shafi’I Madhab and a group that it doesn’t reach the dead. Imam Ahmed, a group of scholars, and a group from the scholars/companions (Ashab) of Imam Shafi’I said that it reaches the dead. The chosen wording is that after finishing the recitation, the recitor should say, “O Allah ta’ala, make the reward of what I recited reach such and such, And Allah ta’ala knows best…”

Imam al-Qurtubi al-Maliki says at-Tadhikira under the chapter of what has come regarding the recitation of the Quran at the grave while burying, and after it; and that the reward of the recitation reaches the dead…
“Abu Hamid in his Kitab al-Ihya and Abu Muhammed AbdulHaq in his book al-‘Iqaya has mentioned it. Muhammed bin Ahmed al-Maruruwidhi said, “I heard Ahmed bin Hanbal say, “When you enter the cemetery, recite Surah al-Fatiha, the Mu’awidhatayn, and Surah Ahad. And make it (the reward of the recitation) for the people of the graves, for it reaches them.”…
As-Salafi reported a hadith of Sayyidina ‘Ali, that he said, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “whoever passes by the cemetery and reads Surah Ikhlas eleven times, and bestows the reward to the dead, he’ll be given the reward equal to the number of people who are dead.” It’s reported a hadith of Anas, the servant of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he said, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “when a believer recites Ayatul Kursi, and gives the reward to the people of the graves, Allah ta’ala puts in the grave of every believer from the east to the west forty Nur (light), and Allah ta’ala expands their resting places, and Allah ta’ala gives the recitor the reward of sixty prophets, and raises a rank for him to the amount of deceased, and writes for him ten rewards for every deceased.”….
The Shaykh, the author, said that the root of this chapter (discussion) is Sadaqa, upon which there is no difference of opinion, just as how the reward (of Sadaqa) reaches the dead, likewise the reward for recitation, supplication, asking for forgiveness reaches the dead, for each of these is a charity (sadaqa), for Sadaqa isn’t restricted to wealth. …
“It’s reported from a hadith of Sayyidina Anas, that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “whoever enters the cemetery and then recites Surah Yasin, Allah ta’ala will lighten for them and for him (the recitor) is the reward equal to the numbers of deceased in the graves. It’s reported from Abdillah bin ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, Allah ta’ala be pleased with both of them, that he commanded that Surah Baqarah be recited at his grave. It’s been reported the permissibility of reciting the Quran at the grave from al-‘Ala’ bin AbdurRahman. An-Nasai and others mentioned the hadith of Ma’qal bin Yasar al-Madani, from the Prophet, peace be upon him, that he said, “recited Surah Yasin upon your dead”, this (hadith) carries/implies the recitation near the dead while he’s dying and it (also) carries that the recitation be at the grave.”
“It’s said that the reward of the recitation is for the recitor, and for the dead is the reward of listening, and because of that mercy will reach him. Allah ta’ala said, “When the Quran is recited, listen to it and keep silent so that you would obtain mercy.” I say, “It’s not distant/far regarding the generosity of Allah ta’ala, that the reward of the recitation and the listening reaches him (meaning both reaches him), and the reward that he gives to him from the recitation reaches him, even if he doesn’t hear him, such (acts) as charity, supplication, forgiveness which we have mentioned. And because the Quran is Dua’ (supplication), seeking forgiveness, humbling (oneself)…
“Al-Kharaiti mentioned in Kitab al-Qubur, he said, “a Sunnah of the Ansar was when they carried the dead, that they recited Surah Baqarah.”…
“Indeed we prolonged the discussion because the Shaykh, Faqih, Qadi, the Imam, Mufti al-Anam, Abdul-‘Aziz bin AbdusSalam would give the verdict that the reward of the recitation doesn’t reach the dead, and he sought evidence through the ayah, “And man doesn’t have except that which he strived for”, so when he passed away, Allah ta’ala have mercy on him, one of his companions who would keep his company saw him (in his dream) and asked him regarding this, he said to him (the Shaykh), “you used to say, “the reward of recitation doesn’t reach the dead, so how was the matter? He said, “Indeed, I used to say that in the abode of Dunya, and now I’ve returned from it (the opinion) when I saw the generosity of Allah ta’ala in that, and indeed it reaches him (the dead).”

Allama Majd ud Din in al-Muharrar says under the chapter of Janaiz:

“…He should be encouraged to say La Ilaha Illa Allah by saying it once, and it shouldn’t be more than three. If he says something after it, it should be repeated. Yasin should be recited over him. And if he dies, his eyes should be closed…”

“Whoever does an optional deed which draws one close (to Allah ta’ala), and gifts it to the dead Muslim, this will benefit him (the dead). (In the commentary/Hashiya by Ibn Muflih al-Hanbali, he defends this and goes into detail (about three pages) regarding different acts.)

Although reciting at the grave isn’t the topic at hand, but here is the position on reading at the grave:
“…It’s disliked to sit and lean on the graves, and it’s not disliked to recite at the grave.”

‘Allama As-Saffarini in his Sharh on Mukhtasar al-Muqni’ he says the same about recitation, and says “it’s authenticated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that he willed (the hadith is mentioned above)…”

‘Allama Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi in al-Mughni:

وقد روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال : { من دخل المقابر فقرأ سورة يس خفف عنهم يومئذ ، وكان له بعدد من فيها حسنات } . وروي عنه عليه السلام { من زار قبر والديه أو أحدهما ، فقرأ عنده أو عندهما يس غفر له } .

وأي قربة فعلها ، وجعل ثوابها للميت المسلم ، نفعه ذلك ، إن شاء الله

Hafidh ibn Qayyim in Kitab al-Ruh:
“They disagreed regarding (the reaching of the reward) the bodily acts of worship such as fasting, prayer, recitation of the Quran, remembrance of Allah ta’ala. The Madhab of Imam Ahmed and majority of the Salaf is that of it reaching the dead, and it’s the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Abi Hanifa…”

Regarding articulating the reward:
“Allah ta’ala knows the intention of the slave, and if he mentions his intention for the act, it’s permissible, and if he leaves its mentioning and suffices with the intention, it will reach him, it’s not necessary to say, “O Allah ta’ala I’m going to fast tomorrow on behalf of so and so.”

Ibn Taymiyya in Iqtida as-Sirat al-Mustaqim:
أن ثواب العبادات البدنية من الصلاة والقراءة وغيرهما يصل إلى الميت كما يصل إليه ثواب العبادات المالية بالاجماع وهذا مذهب أبي حنيفة وأحمد وغيرهما وقول طائفة من أصحاب الشافعي ومالك وهو الصواب لأدلة كثيرة ذكرناها في غير هذا الموضع
والثاني أن ثواب العبادة البدنية لا يصل إليه بحال وهو المشهور عند أصحاب الشافعي ومالك وما من أحد من هؤلاء يخص مكانا بالوصول أو عدمه فأما استماع الميت للأصوات من القراءة وغيرها فحق”

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‘Allama As-Saffarini on Hasan narrating from ‘Ali (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him)

Posted by muhammedm on March 18, 2009

Majority of the ‘Ulema and Huffadh from the Imams of this science reject al-Hasan al-Basri (Allah ta’ala have mercy on him) hearing from Sayyidina ‘Ali (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him). A group from the later Imams and the authoritative Huffadh took this position, amongst them Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyya. And a group from the Huffadh confirmed it, from them Al-Hafidh Diya’ ud Din al-Maqdisi al-Hanbali in his “al-Mukhtara”, for he said, “al-Hasan narrated from ‘Ali (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him)”. And it’s said, “he didn’t hear from him”, Al-Hafidh bin Hajar wrote after this sentence in his “Atraaf al-Mukhtara”, “it’s known with consensus that al-Hasan was born two years before the end of the Khilafa of Sayyidina Umar (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him). His mother, Khayra, was the servant of Umm Salama (Allah ta’ala be pleased with her). She would take him to the Sahaba (Allah ta’ala be pleased with them all) to bless him. She took him to Umar, and he made dua’ for him, “O Allah ta’ala give him understanding in religion, and make people love him.” Al-Hafidh Jamal ud Din al-Mizzi mentioned it in his at-Tahdhib and al-‘Askari with his chain narrated in Kitab al-Muwa’iz.

From what is known about him is that when he reached the age of seven he was commanded to pray, and so he would attend the Juma’ and the congragrattional prayers. Then how can al-Hasan’s hearing from ‘Ali be denied? While he would meet the Sahaba everyday in the Masjid, five times a day from the time he could discern (Mayyaza) until he reached 14 years of age, and while knowing that the commander of the believers would visit the mothers of the believers, and from them is Umm Salama, and Hasan and his mother were in her (Umm Salama’s) house. It’s also mentioned from Hasan al-Basri which indicates his hearing from ‘Ali, Al-Mizzi in his Tahdhib mentioned with chain that includes Abi Nu’aym on the authority of Yunus bin ‘Ubayd, he said, “I asked al-Hasan, “O Aba Sa’id, you say “The Prophet (peace be upon him) said”, while you have not seen him?” He (al-Hasan) said, “O son of my brother, you have asked me about something that no one has asked before you, and if it wasn’t for your position with me I would not tell you, you know the time in which I lived, when al-Hajjaj governed. Every time you have heard from me saying, “the Prophet (peace be upon him) said”, that is on the authority of ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, (I didn’t mention him because) I was living in a time in which I was not able to mention ‘Ali.

Imam Ahmed has narrated in his Musnad: “Hashim narrated, Yusuf narrated on the authority of Hasan, on the authority of ‘Ali, who said, “I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) say, “the pen has been lifted from three: from a child until he reaches puberty, from a person who is sleeping until he wakes up, and from an insane person until he comes to his senses.” At-Tirmidhi narrated it, and declared it Hasan, Nasai and al-Hakim narrated it as well. Ad-Diya’ al-Maqdisi authenticated it in his “al-Mukhtara”. Al-Hafidh Zayn ud Din al-‘Iraqi said in Sharh at-Tirmidhi, “’Ali bin al-Madini said, “Hasan saw ‘Ali in Madina, when he was a young child (ghulam). Abu Zar’ah said, “Hasan was 14 years old when ‘Ali was pledged (bay’ah), and he saw ‘Ali in Madina, then he went to Kufa then Basra and Hasan didn’t meet him after that. Hasan said, “I saw Az-Zubayr (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him) pledge to ‘Ali.” End of ‘Iraqi’s words.

Ad-Daraqutni has narrated a number of ahadith from Ali via Hasan, likewise Nasai, Tahawi, indeed a group from those who authored works narrated a number of ahadith with these two in them. Hafidh ibn Hajar said in Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, “Yahya bin Ma’in said, “Al-Hasan didn’t narrate from ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. It was said, “Did he not hear from Uthman (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him)?” They narrated from him saying, “I saw ‘Uthman giving a khutba.” More than one (scholar) has said, “He didn’t hear from ‘Ali.” When ‘Ali left (his residence) after ‘Uthman was made Shahid, Hasan was in Madina, then he lived in Basra and died there.

Hafidh said, “It comes in the Musnad of Abi Ya’la al-Musali, he said, “Juwayriya bin Isriin narrated to us, ‘Uqba bin Abi As-Suhba’ al-Bahili informed us, I heard al-Hasan say, “I heard ‘Ali say, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The likeness of my Ummah is that of rain…”hadith. Muhammed bin Al-Hasan bin As-Sayrifi said, “This is clear/explicit text regard al-Hasan hearing from ‘Ali, and the men (in the chain) are trustworthy. Ibn Hibban declared Juwayriya as trustworthy, and Imam Ahmed and Ibn Ma’in declared ‘Uqbah as trustworthy.

Source: Sharh Thulathiyat Musnad Imam Ahmed by ‘Allama Saffarini

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