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Lesson one: Intro and Kalam?

Posted by muhammedm on July 2, 2009

أبدأُ بالحمدِ مُصَلِّياً على مُحمَّدٍ خَيِر نبيْ أُرســـــِلا
The Arabic language is the noblest of all languages, with many sciences. One of those sciences is النحو or Grammar. Grammar was first codified due to the influx of foreign people in the Islamic world, thus Sayyidina ‘Ali ordered Abul Aswad ad-Du’liyyu to codify the rules of Grammar; it’s recorded that Sayyidina ‘Ali started the grammatical rules, then Abul Aswad finished it. The ruling for learning Nahw is Fard Kifayya, though if one makes constant mistakes in recitation of Quran such that the meaning changes, it becomes wajib on the individual to learn it. The benefit of learning Nahw is that it protects the tongue from making errors, and one can understand The Quran and Noble Ahadith which are the foundations of the Din. Nahw concerns the position or state of the last letter in the Arabic language, which determines the meaning of the word in relation to the sentence.
The posts will be taken from the book التحفه السنيه بشرح المقدمه الاجروميه. And can be downloaded from: http://al-mostafa.info/data/arabic/depot2/gap.php?file=012920.pdf

Bismillah
First sentence of the text:
“Speech or a sentence (الكلام) is composed of compounded words which gives benefit (meaning) when coined”

By اللفظ (word), the author means that which has sound and is composed of letters from the Arabic language, ex. Ahmed, يكتب (he writes), Sa’id, etc.

By المركب (compound), the author means that which is composed of two or more words, such as محمد مسافر Muhammed is a traveler. According to the Grammarians, speech can be composed of only one word, if it has something hidden or implied, such as if someone were to say, “Who’s your brother? The response would be, “Muhammed”, if one were to express the hidden words, it would be, “My brother is Muhammed”.

By المفيد (benefit), he means that the one addressed has received the message and isn’t waiting to receive some other information from the addressee to finish the news. So if one were to say, ‘If the teacher enters’, this would not be speech since the one being addressed is waiting for the news as to what would happen if the teacher enters, to complete the meaning one can say ‘if the teacher enters, the students quite down’.

By الوضع (coined), the author means words coined by the Arabic Alphabet which indicates towards a meaning, such as جاء which in the Arabic language gives the meaning of coming in the past tense, or Muhammed, which is a person whose name is Muhammed.
Examples: محمد مسافر – Muhammed is a Travellor. This fulfills all of the conditions of speech (kalam), since it’s composed of two words, which gives meaning and is coined in the Arabic language. Another example is, يضئ القمر ليلا The Moon shines at night.

Wal Hamdulillahi Rabbil ‘Alamin.

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