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Allama Marghinani Sahibul Hidaya

Posted by muhammedm on January 1, 2009

All praise belongs to Allah, exalted is He. Peace and blessings be upon his messenger, Muhammed and his companions and the Ulema al-‘Amiluun.

(He is) al-Allama’, an Alim, in the area known as Ma Wara An-Nahr (Transoxania). Burhan ud Din, Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil al-Marghinani al-Hanafi, author of al-Hidaya wa al-Bidaya in the (hanafi) Madhab. He was one of those who were filled with knowledge, Allah (Exalted is He) have mercy on him.”
(Source Siyar ‘Alam an-Nubula of Imam Dhahabi)

“Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil al-Farghani Burhan ud Din al-Marghinani ar-Rushdani, author of al-Hidaya, Kitab al-Bidaya, Kifayatul Muntaha approximately in 80 volumes, Kitab at-Tajnisi wa al-Maziid, and Manasik al-Hajj. He passed away in 583 Hijri. He also has Mukhtar Majmu’ an-Nawazil and a book on inheritance. He met many scholars and gathered their information.”
(Source Taj at-Tarajim Fi Tabaqat al-Hanafiya by Allama’ ibn Qutlubagha)

“’Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil Al-Farghani al-Marghinani, Abu al-Hasan Burhan ud Din, (he’s amongst) the high ranking hanafi scholars. He was a Hafidh, Mufassir, Muhaqqiq, Adiib, from the Mujtahid scholars. He authored:
1. Bidayatul Mubtadi,
2. Al-Hidaya Fi Sharh al-Bidaya
3. Muntaqi al-Furu’
4. Al-Faraid
5. al-Tajniis wa al-Maziid
6. Manasik ul Hajj
7. Mukhtarat al-Manazil”
(Source Al-‘Alam Zarkali)

“’Allama Burhan ud Din Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil bin Khalil bin Abi Bakr, born on the 8th of Rajab in the year 511 Hijri. He was a descendent of the first Khalifa Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (Allah ta’ala be pleased with him).
He studied with Najmuddin Nasafi, Sadru Shahid Hussam ud Din, Sadru Shahid Tajjud Din, Diya’ ud Din Muhammed bin Husayn and Shaykh Baha ud Din.
He passed away on the 14th of Dhul Hijja 593 Hijri, in Samarqand.
His Works
Allama’ Marghinani was a great Faqih, his contemporaries, Qadi Khan and Mehmoud bin Ahmed the author of Muhit Burhani, praised him.
1. Bidayatul Mubtadi – Abu Bakr bin ‘Ali ‘Aamili wrote it into poetry. The work is chosen from Jami’ al-Saghir and al-Quduri.
2. Kifayatul Muntaha – long commentary on Bidayatul Mubtadi in 80 volumes.
3. Kitab al-Muntaqa
4. Kitab at-Tajniis Wa al-Mazid
5. Kitab al-Manasik al Hajj
6. Nashrul Madhahib
7. Mukhtarat an-Nawazil
8. Faraid al-‘Uthmani
9. Hidaya – medium commentary on the Bidayatul Mubtadi. Started in 573 and finished after 13 years. It’s been translated into many languages. Imam Shah Wali ullah’s brother Shah Ahlullah translated it into Farsi.
                                                                                     Commentaries on al-Hidaya
The amount of commentaries and notes indicates it’s acceptance amongst scholars, over fifty commentaries have been written on it, a few are mentioned below:

1. Al-Fawaid – Hamiid ud Din ‘Ali (d 667 Hijri) bin Muhammed Darir, author of Mufid ul Mufti, commentary on the first half of al-Hidaya.
2. Nihaya – Hussam ud Din Hasan (d 710 Hijri) bin Ali Signaqi – This commentary was finished in Rabi’ al-Awal in the year 700 Hijri.
3. Mi’raj ud Diraya ila Sharh al-Hidaya – Qawwam ud Din Muhammed (d 749 Hijri) bin Muhammed Bukhari.
4. Nihayatul Kifaya Fi Dirayatil Hidaya – by Imam Taj ud Din Umar bin Sadr as-Sharia’at Ubaydulllah Mehbobi, finished in Sha’ban of 673.
5. Ghayatul Bayan – Qawwam ud Din Amir Katib (d 758 Hijri) bin Amir Umar
6. Fath ul Qadir – Shaykh Kamal ud Din Muhammed bin AbdilWahid, known as Ibn al-Hummam (d 841 Hijri). Mulla Ali Qari wrote a Hashiya on Fath ul Qadir in two volumes, and ‘Allama Ibrahim (d 956 Hijri) summarized it in one volume.
7. Kifaya – Mehmoud bin Ubaydullah bin Mehmoud Taj ud Shari’at did takhrij of the Ahadith mentioned in al-Hidaya.
8. Nasbur Raya Fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Hidaya – Jamal ud Din Yusuf Zaylai’ (d 762 Hijri)
9. Nihaya – Qadi Badr ud Din Mehmoud bin Ahmed ‘Ayni (d 855 Hijri)
(Source Tadhkira Musannifin Darsi Nidhami by Akhtar Rahi)

“’Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil al-Farghani, Shaykh ul Islam, Burhan ud Din al-Marghinani, al-‘Allama, al-Muhaqqiq, author of Al-Hidaya.”
(Source Abdul Qadir al-Qurashi Al-Jawhar al-Madiya)

“He was an Imam, Faqih, Hafidh, Muhaddith, Mufassir, possessor and master of different sciences, intelligent, Muhaqqiq, having far insight, Mudaqqiq , ascetic, pious, Fadil, Mahir (proficient), Usuli, Adiib, poet, eyes have not seen anyone like him in knowledge and adab (literature).”
(Source ‘Allama al-Lucknawi Al-Fawaid al-Bahiya)

“Ibn Kamal Basha placed him amongst the scholars of Tarjih (giving priority to one opinion over another); others placed him amongst the scholars of Takhrij. Allama Lucknawi considers him from the Mujtahids in the Madhab.”
(Source Intro to Nasb ar-Raya)

(Removal of misunderstanding relating to the ahadith mentioned in al-Hidaya)
“Some respected scholars have attributed weakness to Allama’ Marghinani in ahadith because of the ahadith mentioned in it that relate to the different masa’ils. Even Shaykh AbdulHaq ad-Dehlawi has said, “Hidaya is one of the famous, relied upon books, it has put doubt (that the Shafi’i Madhab is more in accordance with the ahadith than the Hanafi Madhab) because it’s author has mentioned the ahadith, for the most part, relied on intellectual evidence and the ahadith that he brings is not devoid of weakness in the eyes of Muhadithin. (And so) his time spent with hadith seems to be very little. But Shaykh ibn al-Humam’s (may Allah ta’ala reward him) Sharh on the Hidaya has compensated it and he has worked with much research.”
(However) Allama’ Marghinani spent his time being occupied with ahadith; rather he was a Muhaddith and a Hafidh of Ahadith. And the ahadith that he mentions are not weak because they’re taken from the books of the early (mutaqaddimin) scholars. The case is similar to Imam Baghawi in Masabiih us Sunnah and Shah Waliullah in Hujjatullah al-Baligha who relied on the books of the early Imams without referencing or mentioning the sanad, just like this, Allama Marghinani has mentioned the narrations by relying on the books of the early Imams. Because of the fitna of Tatar, the loads of knowledge were lost, and many of the books that were in circulation went missing. And so, the scholars who did takhrij looked for the ahadith in the books that were prevalent in their time and didn’t look into the books of the early Imams. Because of this, the scholars (who did takhrij) had to say, concerning a number of narrations, “We couldn’t find the narration with this wording” (the wordings mentioned in Hidaya). For it is apparent that they, mukhrijin, have stated explicitly “I couldn’t find it”, whereas the ahadith (which they couldn’t find) are found in Kitab al-Aathar, Mabsut of Imam Muhammed and others. Other books have similar cases; in Imam Bukhari’s Ta’liqaat there are many narrations which ibn Hajar has said similar to what he said in Takhrij of al-Hidaya. And the reason for Imam Bukhari’s Ta’liqaat’s narrations is because of the loss of the early Imams’ books.”

Mawlana then discusses the possibility of this lack of knowledge (which isn’t a bad thing) to scholars such as Allama Ibn Hajar, who was mistaken in saying Allama’ Razi didn’t have any kids, which was wrong as history books and biographical notes state otherwise.

“Allama’ Qasim bin Qutblugha has written a work on takhrij which Hafidh Ibn Hajar says, “I don’t know” (concerning the narration mentioned in al-Hidaya), and the name of the book is Maniyat ul Laam’i Fi Ma Faata Min Takhrij Ahadith al-Hidayatihi Li Zaylai’.”

Mawlana goes on to say that when the scholars who did the Hawashis write “Gharib Jiddan or Nadir Jiddan” it’s only Lafdhi, for if one were meticulously looking at the ahadith in al-Hidaya he would find that the meanings can be established by the wordings of the ahadith in the Sihaah. A story is related about Mawlana Fakhr ud Din Zaradi established the rulings of al-Hidaya via Sahihayn instead of those mentioned in al-Hidaya.

Hidaya has over 50 commentaries and Hawashis. Mawlana has mentioned 34 of them.
As for the Takhrij, he mentions four, the three of them mentioned above, and the last one by Allama’ AbdulQadir al-Qurashi.

(Source Halaat Musannifin Darsi Nidhami by Maulana Muhammed Haneef Gongohi)

Nowadays Muslims have started attacking scholars, whose caliber is well known amongst the scholars. One of them is Allama Marghinani. Just like any scholar, he made mistakes, and because of that some have slandered this great ‘Alim, to such an extent that they say he might have purposely fabricated ahadith to show that the Hanafi Madhab is stronger than the Shafi’i. This is huge a slander against the ‘Allama, as can be seen above that the Ulema’ have praised him abundantly, and so to come out and say that he fabricated ahadith or lacked ahadith is wrong and pure ignorance and ta’assub. The number of commentaries that have been written on this work is alone enough to give credence to the author as well as the book. The hanafi Ulema don’t rely solely on the ahadith mentioned in the book, rather they have all the shuruh mentioned above which mention plentiful evidences for the hanafi Madhab. The verbal attacks on the hanafi Madhab is purely out of ignorance, for if a person wants to learn the many proofs of the Madhab he doesn’t have to look far.
As a side note, the Hanafi Ulema’ (from them Allama’ Lucknawi) have stated explicitly that ahadith shouldn’t be taken from fiqh works like this which don’t have sanad (which should be a given since it’s a fiqh book and not a hadith book), even though the author is a Mujtahid in the Madhab, as in the case of Allama Marghinani. And to think that the Ulema rely solely on the ahadith and don’t critique it in their lessons is lack of knowledge, for every true, God-fearing Alim will tell the truth.

Some of the commentaries can be downloaded from http://www.al-mostafa.com/
Or read online: http://feqh.al-islam.com/books.asp
Allah ta’ala knows best.

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